Jun 02, 2020
Recorded on the 27th May 2020. This webinar focuses on the alternative asset that is gold. In this webinar, we discussed: Gold's strategic and tactical place in a portfolio Understanding gold's valuation factors: The short, medium and long-term price drivers Examining the recent rise of gold The future outlook To watch the webinar recording, please click here.
Apr 07, 2020
Gold has grabbed headlines during the COVID-19 situation, as investors have raced to safe-haven assets. While gold is valued as a hedge against short term volatility, it can also hold a long-term role in a diversified portfolio given its defensive and growth qualities. Gold can represent 2-10% of a portfolio, depending on an investor’s needs or strategy, but many investors are missing this allocation. For these investors, it has become a question of why not? Gold as a safe haven Gold has both defensive and growth qualities, which has led to its position as an investment safe-haven in times of volatility. It can act as a store of value, as well as holding the potential to grow. There are two key reasons for this. 1) Gold has a low, and at times, negative correlation to other asset classes. That is, it performs differently to other asset classes and its performance is not necessarily associated with what is happening in other asset classes. This is shown in the table below: Australian Equity Global Equity Australian Fixed Income Global Fixed Income Commodities Correlation -0.29 -0.12 0.37 0.06 0.31 Source: Bloomberg data as at 31 December 2019. Correlations are calculated monthly over 20 years in Australian dollars. Australian equity is represented by the S&P/ASX200 Total Return Index. Global equity is represented by the MSCI World Total Return Index. Australian fixed income is represented by the Bloomberg AusBond Composite 0+ Yr Index. Global fixed income is represented by the Bloomberg Global Aggregate Total Return Index. Commodities are represented by the Bloomberg Commodity Total Return Index 2) Gold has the ability to offer positive performance in a range of market conditions, including periods of volatility. For example, if you consider the Global Financial Crisis, gold prices rose 26% while the S&P 500 fell 56%. Even in the current COVID-19 situation, between 19 February and 26 March 2020, gold gained 12.4% compared to the S&P 500 which fell 14.1% and the S&P/ASX 200 which fell 27.8% (all in AUD terms). You can see the performance of gold against other major asset classes in the chart below. Source: Bloomberg, ETF Securities, as at 26 March 2020 This ability to perform in a range of markets comes down to gold’s position as a consumer-driven and investment-driven asset. From a consumption perspective, while around 50% of its use is in jewellery, gold is also heavily used for other purposes such as electronics or even part of medical and diagnostics equipment [1,2] COVID-19: gold price falls and rises Given the facts around gold as a safe-haven asset, investors may therefore wonder what happened when gold prices fell across the week starting 16 March 2020 and how gold has performed across the COVID-19 situation to date. On the whole, gold has seen increased interest and flows during the COVID-19 situation, but markets did see price falls across the week commencing 16th March 2020. It is worth understanding why this happened, as it was less related to any concerns about gold and more related to other activities. Gold can be vulnerable to financial deleveraging – that is, investors needing to free up cash for a variety of reasons. Equity markets were hit simultaneously by the COVID-19 situation and a price meltdown in oil markets. This affected investors with leveraged positions who would have needed to sell other assets to free up cash to pay their liabilities. What this looks like is as follows. An investor using their own money and borrowed money to purchase investments is required to maintain the investment account at a certain value – this is a leveraged position (also called a margin loan account). If the total account falls below that value – generally because the investment itself has fallen in value, then the investor will need to ‘top up’ the account with their own cash to restore the account to its minimum value (this is a margin call). As markets fell across the week of 16 March 2020, many investors would have needed to top up their accounts and will have sold other liquid and performing assets, such as gold, to do so. This has occurred in the past too. During the Global Financial Crisis, gold was briefly sold in October 2008 to meet investors’ cash needs for liabilities from the equity market sell off but then recovered and returned 45% in US dollar terms from its October 2008 low into March 2009, compared to the S&P500 which fell 30% in the same period. Since then, gold has recovered, reaching seven-year highs on 25 March 2020 of A$2746.32 per ounce. Source: Bloomberg, ETF Securities The outlook for gold There are a few factors to suggest gold may continue to hold value across the current crisis. Market volatility from COVID-19 While China has begun to reopen after its COVID-19 lockdown, other countries are either in the midst of it or commencing stages of lockdown. From that perspective, investor concerns and volatility may continue for some time yet. The panic has been swift but recovery could take some time. Some sectors, like technology, are in theory well positioned for both crisis and recovery but investor confidence is a different matter. Other sectors, like retail and travel, will struggle during this period and may find ramping up post the crisis takes some time. From this perspective, many investors may continue to look for defensive assets like gold. They won’t be alone. Even central banks may bulk up their stores of gold across this period. The low interest rate environment and prospect of quantitative easing Gold traditionally performs well in periods of low interest rates, with investors using it rather than cash. Interest rates have been low for some time but have dropped further in the current situation. Australian rates have reached lows of 0.25% while the US has dropped to a range of 0-0.25%. Many countries, including Australia have announced fresh rounds of quantitative easing too. Temporary shortage At the same time as increasing numbers of retail investors seek to purchase physical gold bullion, supply chains have been disrupted by COVID-19 . Refineries in Europe, particularly in Italy, have been unable to keep up with demand forcing traders to move into wholesale markets. While refineries in normal circumstances would be able to manage the surge in interest, lockdowns over COVID-19 may continue to place pressure on supply, in turn pushing prices higher. Accessing gold using an ETF The traditional forms of access to gold were either through physical holdings or an indirect exposure by owning shares in gold mining companies. Both had their challenges – physical holdings namely through prohibitive costs and indirect exposure by opening to assorted company risks. Generally speaking, physical holdings offer a more pure exposure. The first gold-backed ETF was launched in 2003 by ETF Securities, it still trades today as ETFS Physical Gold (ASX:GOLD) and held $1.65 billion in assets as at 27 March 2020. Gold-backed ETFs are literally as described, where physical gold is purchased and stored by a fund manager as part of a trust and investors buy units in the trust for exposure to the market movements of gold. Using an ETF for gold exposure has several features and advantages over the physical holdings. Cost tends to be a foremost consideration. Investors in physical gold may need to consider aspects like freight, storage and insurance, as well as the volumes available through their broker of choice. For example, some brokers may sell by the ounce which may be cost-prohibitive for some retail investors. Units in gold-backed ETFs tend to have management fees that are often cheaper than the costs for individuals to store and insure their own gold The liquidity and ease of use of gold-backed ETFs compared to physical gold is another consideration. Investors holding ETFs may be more easily able to adjust their holdings to reflect activity in the market, buying or selling small quantities when needed compared to those holding physical holdings which may have higher minimum trading quantities and take longer to transact. This can be a challenge for some investors depending on their size and horizon of their investment. ETFs are also typically easier to use compared to physical gold holdings, requiring as little as a trading account to get started and can be done anywhere. It can be less intimidating for many investors who may not be aware of even where to start for physical purchasing and trading. Understanding the risks As an investment tool, ETFs are subject to a range of general investment risks, such as market risk or counterparty risk. Market risk relates to loss of value due to movements in price. Changes in the price of gold relative to an investors purchase price create gains or losses. Counterparty risk is the risk that the other party to your investment defaults or mismanages your assets. For example, the risk that the custodian holding the physical gold (whether for an ETF or individual investor) has not securely stored the gold and it is stolen or lost. Custodians of assets in managed funds, like ETFs, typically use major international vaults to store the physical assets which offer highly sophisticated security arrangements compared to personal safes or small storage companies. Another example of counterparty risk might occur at the time of investment purchase if the trading tool or company doesn’t actually use your funds to buy the selected investment or asset. Using established and credible companies to purchase investments can be an important way of managing this risk. There can also be variation in the way that gold-backed ETFs are managed, so investors should research their options. One crucial difference to watch for is whether the ETF uses allocated or unallocated gold. Allocated gold means you own the physical gold based on your unit holding. In the event of a default by the custodian, your holding is unaffected. ASX: GOLD uses allocated gold and you can redeem your units for the physical gold. Unallocated gold means your cash investment is ‘backed’ by the physical gold holdings of the issuer still providing you with exposure, but these holdings remain the property of the issuer. This form of gold-backed fund has additional credit risk for investors. Should a default occur, you don’t have ownership over the physical gold so your claim is considered and paid alongside all other parties of the issuer who might also have a claim. Unallocated gold is used in many gold-backed ETFs so it is worth investigating the structure and management before you decide to invest. Both physical holdings and ETFs can also be subject to liquidity risk. Liquidity risk is the risk that the physical holding can’t be sold quickly or at a fair price in the market. Investors will need to weigh up all these risks before deciding to buy physical gold or a gold-backed ETF. Why aren’t you investing in gold? While events like COVID-19 and the Global Financial Crisis provide a clear demonstration of gold’s defensive qualities, investors should consider their longer-term strategy. Offering diversification, growth and stability over time, gold can be a suitable inclusion for many investors. In turn, gold-backed ETFs can offer liquid, cost-effective and easy to access exposure all using your existing trading platforms.
Apr 02, 2020
The current COVID-19 concerns have rattled markets, with advisers fielding calls from concerned clients. In some cases, advisers may choose to add tilts or hedges for their clients’ investments, while for others, it will be better to stay the course. There are a range of ways to manage market volatility in a portfolio, some universally valuable, others dependent on the individual clients. In this paper, we’ve highlighted some of the most common. Download now In your discussions with clients, these principles can be a helpful starting point in reinforcing your approach and providing comfort in uncertain times. 1. Diversification Reinforcing the value of diversification with your clients can be as simple as the analogy of not having all your eggs in one basket. The current environment has reinforced the importance of diversification within asset classes and sectors, with some companies able to benefit (ie supermarkets) and others needing to close down (i.e. travel and tourism companies). 2. Incorporating more stable, less cyclical investments Holding companies which are able to consistently operate regardless of market conditions, such as essential services infrastructure, can assist in buffering portfolios against falling markets. 3. Alternative investments Investments which are designed to perform differently to equity and bond markets can range in complexity. Gold is a simple asset with a low or even negative correlation with other asset classes which has acted as a safe-haven investment across a number of market events over time. 4. Strategic tilts For some investors, incorporating short-term tilts alongside the long-term core strategy can assist in managing market volatility. Depending on the strategy, this could mean adding a tilt to high growth (and therefore ‘riskier’ assets) or adding more defensive position. ETFs can be an effective tool for managing volatility for your clients. Beyond characteristics including liquidity and cost-efficiency, the wide range available, broad exposures and instant diversification mean they can be suitable across investor types. For more information on our range of ETFs and using them in your clients’ portfolios, please contact us on: Sales Trading Phone +61 2 8311 3488 Email: email@example.com Phone +61 2 8311 3483 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Feb 11, 2020
To access the 'No retirement for investments' white paper, please click the download now button above. Important notice: a previous version of this whitepaper incorrectly stated the ASFA comfortable retirement standards for a couple as $43,787/year and superannuation balance of $545,000. These figures relate to the comfortable retirement standards of a single not a couple. The standards for a couple are $61,786/year and $640,000 in superannuation balance. Managing a retirement portfolio for income and growth Retirement portfolios offer a particular challenge in advice, given their more complex needs. They need to generate a stable income, preserve capital and still offer some level of growth to allow investors to manage inflation and longevity risks, along with a reasonable standard of lifestyle. In the paper No retirement for investments, ETF Securities considers how assets, portfolio construction and product selection can be used to manage retirement in the current market environment. You can download the full paper above, or read the summary following. Part of the solution comes down to diversification of the assets used for income. Retired investors have traditionally relied on domestic fixed income to support their yield needs but are now forced to consider other options. Fixed income can still play a role, for example, diversifying to international sources such as US fixed income which currently offers a higher interest rate may be part of the answer. Commonly, investors are being forced into riskier income approaches, such as through dividend streams. High yield equities may work for some retired investors, pending their risk tolerance along with overall portfolio construction. For example, they may consider how to offset the higher risks of high yield shares in other parts of their portfolio. Using alternatives in the form of commodities like gold may assist with offering stability and diversification to manage the volatility which could occur in high yield shares. Alternatively, looking to investments in more stable, less cyclical industries may be more suitable. Infrastructure is one option. It includes many essential services areas like utilities, telecommunications, industrials and transport which tend to be less vulnerable to market movements and cycles. Finally, product choice can be part of the solution to market conditions. Flexibility is important in this environment, but retired investors also need to be conscious of costs, risks and quality. Bearing these in mind, ETFs may be a suitable option due to characteristics such as low costs, ease of use, liquidity and a wide range to assist in meeting specific portfolio needs or gaps. For more information on the solutions ETF Securities offers, please contact us on: Sales Trading Phone +61 2 8311 3488 Email: infoAU@etfsecurities.com.au Phone +61 2 8311 3483 Email: email@example.com
Nov 20, 2019
Published: 20 November 2019 Product in focus: ETFS Physical Gold Key Points: Gold has long been considered a safe-haven asset used by investors to hedge against event risk but is often not appreciated for the way in which it can aid portfolio returns in different market conditions. Over the long-term gold has close to zero correlation with share markets. This is good for investors. Uncorrelated assets provide diversification and help improve returns or reduce risk within a portfolio. ETFS Physical Gold (ASX: GOLD) is a simple and cost-effective and efficient way to access gold by providing a return equivalent to the movements in the gold spot price. At ETF Securities, as manager of Australia’s largest and the world’s oldest exchange traded gold product (ASX: GOLD), we spend a lot of time looking at how gold can work for our clients to improve outcomes across their portfolios. Gold is well-known as a hedge against event risk and as a way of preserving capital against inflation, but people often don’t appreciate how well a long-term holding can aid portfolio returns in different market conditions. When we talk about using gold in a portfolio, we tend to focus on its role as a core strategic holding, not an asset to trade in- and out- of on a regular basis. This article outlines five key reasons you should consider gold as a core holding. 1. Gold is an effective hedge against unpredictable events Gold has been one of best performing assets globally over the past year and has attracted a lot of attention. In Australian dollar terms gold has never been more valuable, having risen 32% over the 12-month period to the end of September. Not only has gold performed very well, but it has done so against a backdrop of rising geopolitical risk, periodic bouts of equity market volatility, global growth concerns and an abrupt shift in monetary policy, both domestically and abroad. The recent past is just one example in gold’s long history of performing well when markets are in turmoil or when risks are heightened. Other prominent examples include; the 1987 stock market crash; gold rose 6% while the S&P 500 fell 33% the global financial crisis; gold rose 26% while the S&P 500 fell 56% the European sovereign debt crisis; gold rose 9% while the S&P 500 fell 19% It is not surprising, therefore, that many people use gold as a safe-haven asset in much the same way they would use insurance to protect their physical assets. Of course, you don’t just take out home insurance when you feel a flood or fire may be imminent, which is why we advocate holding gold long-term to protect against events that are inherently unpredictable. 2. The price of gold is driven by many factors and is difficult to predict Gold does not conform to traditional financial asset principles and there is no widely accepted model to determine a fair price for gold. While many different models exist, it is fair to say that the price of gold is driven by a wide range of variables and is difficult to predict. Gold is both a consumption and an investment asset, which often makes it both pro- and counter-cyclical at the same time. Levels of economic growth are positively related to demand for gold for use in jewellery and technology products, while expectations of lower growth may drive investment or safe haven buying. Gold is used as a store of wealth and as protection against inflation, while it is also in demand when interest rates and inflation are low and economic prospect look poor. Further, central banks are key investors and have massive reserves and a wide range of different motivations for owning gold, which can heavily influence demand. With such an array of competing factors for which to account, forecasting changes in the price of gold and the timing of changes is extremely difficult. We therefore rarely recommend gold as a trade-in/trade-out investment, where market timing is key. Instead we focus on how gold can be used as a core strategic holding. Depending on their circumstances, we often see investors using gold with a 2%, 5% or 10% allocation across their portfolios. 3. Gold’s long-term returns are better than many other asset classes Since gold became a freely traded commodity in 1971 its price has increased by an average of 11.7% per year in Australian dollar terms. Chart 1 shows how gold has performed relative to other major asset classes from the perspective of an Australian investor. While some investors worry that gold produces no regular income, its overall returns have out-stripped many more widely used investments. Gold has significantly outperformed both fixed income investments and diversified commodities. Its long-term returns are comparable with share market returns. Chart 1. Source: Bloomberg data as at 30 September 2019. Returns shown are compounded annual growth rates. Australian Equity is represented by the S&P/ASX 200 Total Return Index. Global Equity is represented by the MSCI World Total Return Index. Australian Fixed Income is represented by the Bloomberg AusBond Composite 0+ Yr Index. Global Fixed Income is represented by the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Total Return Index. Commodities are represented by the Bloomberg Commodity Total Return Index. 4. Gold helps diversify your portfolio when you need it most Over the long-term gold has close to zero correlation with share markets. This is good for investors. Uncorrelated assets provide diversification and help improve returns or reduce risk within a portfolio. Table 1 shows correlations between gold and other major asset classes over 20 years and you can see that gold generally has low correlations with other assets. It tends to be negatively correlated with equities, while being mildly positively correlated with bonds and commodities. Table 1. Source: Bloomberg data as at 30 September 2019. Correlations are calculated monthly over 20 years in Australian dollars. Australian Equity is represented by the S&P/ASX 200 Total Return Index. Global Equity is represented by the MSCI World Total Return Index. Australian Fixed Income is represented by the Bloomberg AusBond Composite 0+ Yr Index. Global Fixed Income is represented by the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Total Return Index. Commodities are represented by the Bloomberg Commodity Total Return Index. Not only has gold’s correlation with share markets been low, it has the nice property that it has tended to become more negative when stock markets are falling. Chart 2 shows the correlation between gold and global equities separately considering periods where the equity returns are positive, and then negative. This contrasts with other uncorrelated or “alternative” assets that became highly correlated with stock markets during the GFC. Not only does gold benefit from safe-haven buying during times of market stress, unlike most other financial assets, it has no element of credit risk, which immunises it from extreme market dislocations. Chart 2. Source: Bloomberg data as at 30 September 2019. 5. Gold can improve risk-adjusted returns over the long-term To demonstrate the impact that a core gold position can have in a portfolio, we have simulated adding a gold holding to a collection of typical asset allocation models that include Australian and international equity and fixed income assets with four different allocations representing Conservative, Balanced, Growth and High Growth profiles. Charts 3 - 6 below show the outright return, volatility or risk (measured by standard deviation), maximum drawdown or biggest loss and the risk-adjusted return (measured by the Sharpe ratio) for each asset allocation portfolio and for each portfolio with the addition of 2%, 5% and 10% gold. Source: Morningstar Direct data from 31 March 2003 to 30 September 2019. Conservative, Balanced, Growth and High Growth portfolios are represented by the Vanguard LifeStrategy funds, which have been live since February 2003 or longer. Gold is represented by ETFS Physical Gold (ASX: GOLD), which has been live since March 2003. Figures quoted are in Australian dollars and are net of fees. What we observe is that the addition of gold to an otherwise diversified portfolio has aided performance in every case. Outright returns are higher and increase as the gold allocation is increased. From a risk perspective, however, the impact of gold is even more important. The addition of gold reduces risk through gold’s ability to provide diversification. Risk-adjusted returns are higher and importantly drawdowns, or worst-case scenarios, are significantly improved.  Bloomberg data as at 30 November 2018
Jul 09, 2019
Published: 9th July 2019 Product in Focus: ETFS Physical Gold (ASX Code: Gold) Key Points Gold has been on a run in 2019 reaching a new all time high in AUD terms of over A$2000/ounce. Gold price is influenced by economic uncertainty and momentum Demand is high, driven by central bank and ETF purchasing Gold has been on a great run in 2019. US$ spot gold is up 9.1% since the start of the year and has recently been trading above US $1,400 for the first time since 2013 (as at 8th July 2019). In Australian dollar terms gold is hitting new all-time highs above A$2,000 an ounce. Fuelled by equity market volatility in late 2018 and recent heightened expectations of easing monetary policy, gold has performed precisely as would have been predicated by anyone anticipating the broader macro forces at work over the past year. Equity market volatility in early 2018 triggered a rally, which subsided as markets regrouped and set sail for new highs in the third quarter. Volatility returned the fourth quarter of 2018, driving gold higher again. All of this occurred with the backdrop of an abrupt shift in monetary policy from major central banks. To put gold’s price activity into context, it is worth looking at the historic drivers of the gold price. Research by the World Gold Council highlights the four broad categories of factors that influence the price of gold; This article looks at these four key factors in the context of the current market from a global perspective. Factor 1: Economic Expansion Despite much talk about the uncorrelated and counter-cyclical aspects of gold, like most assets, demand for gold is at least somewhat driven by the overall level activity and wealth in the global economy. Where savings and investment levels are high, demand for gold is high. Recent years have seen growing demand for gold from both India and China as levels of disposable wealth have grown. These two countries now account for more than 50% of global demand for gold. Conversely, a slowdown in the technology sector in late 2018 saw industrial demand fall by 3% in Q1 2019. While a broader economic slowdown seems to be in progress, the diversity of demand for gold and its traditional role as a strategic investment asset makes it unlikely that a reduction in economic activity will have a significant negative price impact on gold in the short-term. Factor 2: Risk and Uncertainty As an investment asset gold is commonly deployed as a portfolio diversifier, inflation hedge and quasi-insurance policy. Gold has shown persistently low levels of correlation with stocks and bonds over the long term, which means that the addition of gold to a portfolio is often able to improve risk-adjusted returns by adding diversification. Figure 3, below, shows the impact of adding gold to a typical balanced portfolio invested across Australian and international equities and fixed income (as represented by Vanguard’s LifeStrategy Balanced Fund). The conclusion here is that over the long-run a relatively small allocation to gold in a portfolio can have a consistent impact on the risk/return profile of the portfolio. In addition, gold can also have a substantial impact when other asset returns are stressed. This is evidenced in Figure 3(b) by the lower drawdowns, or losses experienced during the largest negative events. This leads us to gold’s commonly cited role as an “event risk” hedge. When major, unexpected events occur gold has, time and again, had a better outcome than equity markets. Figure 4, below, shows how gold fared versus the S&P 500 and ASX 200 through a selection of major financial events over the past four decades. When negative market events occur, gold’s correlation with mainstream asset classes tends to reduce and even become negative. This is in stark contrast to many other “alternative” assets, such as hedge fund strategies. During the global financial crisis, these were seen to be highly correlated to equity markets as investors simultaneously rushed to the exit of anything but the safest stores of value. Not only is gold highly liquid, its other important feature is that it has no credit risk. Unlike other asset classes, during times of financial stress when risk premiums are raised correlations between other assets rise as investors simultaneously look to sell, while gold often moves the other way on safe-haven buying. While such major events are unpredictable by nature, there is a growing case to be made that equity market valuations are currently stretched and that the volatility seen in early and late 2018 could well return in the near-term. Even if the monetary authorities are ahead of the curve and manage to engineer a soft landing, late-phase bull-markets are synonymous with bouts of volatility. As with any insurance policy, premiums are paid in the hope you never need to make a claim. Factor 3: Opportunity Cost The most common argument made against investing in gold is that gold has no intrinsic value because it produces no income and in fact produces negative income if you account for storage and security costs. This is certainly true in a literal sense. As has already been demonstrated, however, this should not detract from the role gold can play in a portfolio and the potential value it adds. The opportunity cost associated with holding gold is driven by the income and gains forgone by investing in gold over other asset classes. This is clearest in relation to bonds - when interest rates are high the relative cost of owning gold is high. Bonds may provide the necessary diversification, while also providing attractive levels of income. When yields are low, however, that cost of owning gold is reduced, making gold a more attractive play. In cases where yields are negative, as we currently see across Japan and the eurozone, gold effectively provides a positive yield. In the current market, not only are interest rates at the low end of the historic range, but monetary authorities, most importantly in the U.S., but also in Australia and Europe, have recently shifted from a normalisation/tightening bias, to a stimulatory/easing bias. Figure 5, below, demonstrates the very close relationship between gold and the U.S. 2-year Treasury yield over the past 18 months. Furthermore, over the past two easing cycles in the U.S. between 2001-03 and between 2007-08 gold appreciated by 31% and 17% respectively. Research by the World Gold Council also suggests that not only do lower interest rates raise demand for gold, but that interest rates have a greater impact on gold in periods where there is a shift in stance, which is exactly what we have seen over the past few months. Markets are now pricing a 100% probability of a Fed cut at the end of July. The likelihood of this was less than 20% as recently as late-May. Factor 4: Momentum Like most assets, gold is susceptible to trends and changes in momentum as it moves in and out of favour and the current trend is overwhelmingly positive. A key area of investment demand is from exchange traded funds (ETFs). Figure 6 shows that global ETF holdings have been steadily rising since early 2016. There are now over 74 million troy ounces of gold supporting physically-backed ETFs, which provide investors with access to gold on most global stock exchanges. ETF users range from larger institutional to small retail investors. Central bank demand is also growing and has been doing so since 2010. Net purchases are at historic highs and diversified across a wide range of nations. According to the World Gold Council 9 central banks added more than a tonne of gold to their reserves in Q1 2019. Conclusion In summary, gold has picked-up a strong tail-wind in recent months. Demand for gold continues to grow on multiple fronts. The case for using gold as a portfolio diversifier is also becoming clearer as interest rates decline and future growth prospects of global economies are questioned. For investors who are concerned with the risk of drastic, unexpected events it is hard to go past the track record of gold in helping to reduce losses in such scenarios. How to invest? Investors looking to add gold exposure to their portfolios can do so via ETFS Physical Gold (ASX: GOLD). GOLD is the oldest and largest gold ETF traded on the ASX. It is fully-backed by physical gold bullion vaulted on behalf of investors in the fund. GOLD charges a management fee of 0.40% per annum.